##### Author: КОСТЫЛЕВ ИЛЬЯ ГЕРАСИМОВИЧ / KOSTYLEV ILYA GERASIMOVICH

Introduction

The night sky has fascinated people throughout history. And today our eyes are directed upwards. Space is an endless expanse that holds not only the secrets of the universe, but also the possibilities for the continued existence of people.

Orbital space stations are a necessary tool for space exploration. However, today they are not able to guarantee conditions for a long stay of astronauts in orbit. There is a need to develop such a station, which can be autonomous for many years, especially since in the future orbital settlements will need it.

Humanity needs an alternative for Earth, because in the future there is a possibility that the living conditions on our planet will become unsuitable. The creation of orbital settlements is one of the solutions to this problem. It is worth noting that finding and settling other planets is also a priority task, for which a spacecraft capable of being autonomous for a long time is needed.

It can be seen that for existence in orbit and long–distance flights, it is necessary to create autonomous spacecraft, so it makes sense to combine a spacecraft and an orbital station, because they solve the same problem - long-term residence on them.

To create an autonomous space station-ship, let's use an analogy and turn to nature, namely the planetary system [7].

The proposed space station-ship will be a model of a planetary system in which two fundamental parts need to be distinguished. The first is the energy region, which is a spherical thermonuclear reactor connected to the area of residence [3], provides the autonomy of the entire spacecraft, and is also the main engine for moving in space. The second is the area of residence, which is a ring-shaped structure that creates conditions similar to those on Earth for a comfortable and long stay on a spaceship.

Let's illustrate the space station-ship and compare it with the planetary system in Figure 1.

Let's analyze each part.

Energy area

The heart of the space station-ship is a thermonuclear reactor, the principle of operation of which, like the spacecraft in question, is based on an analogy with nature, namely with the conditions created in the stars [3].

Obtaining energy by this method consists in the retention of plasma [6], in which thermonuclear fusion takes place. In modern installations, it is held by a magnetic field that pulls it into a toroidal shape [10]. However, the lifetime of the plasma in this state is a fraction of a second, which is not promising for ensuring autonomy on the space station. To increase this time interval, consider plasma in conditions where it has existed for billions of years – in stars.

Stars are celestial bodies, giant glowing spheres of plasma. The energy of stars is born in their nuclei, where, accordingly, thermonuclear fusion reactions of hydrogen nuclei occur. In order for the fusion process to take place, the star must have a significant mass, otherwise the pressure force generated in these reactions will exceed the pulling force of gravity and the star will break apart. The reverse situation is also dangerous. Let's illustrate this in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Illustration of forces acting on a star

It follows from this that compressive and bursting forces are needed for a stable state.

In addition, the stars have a spherical or close to a sphere shape, otherwise the forces will have an inhomogeneous distribution, which will lead to destruction. It should be mentioned that two conditions must be met for reactions to occur [9]:

The temperature must be ≥ 〖10〗^7 K

The pressure inside the core must be ≥ 〖10〗^18 Pa

Since gravity plays the role of compressive force in stars due to their large mass, it is not suitable for using the energy of stars on Earth. However, plasma consists of charged particles, so the role of compressive force can be assumed by the electrostatic interaction. As you know, the charges of the same name repel each other, and the nuclei of hydrogen atoms are positive, then by creating a chamber with a positive charge and a spherical plasma of the same charge, you can recreate conditions similar to those that exist in stars. Only for these conditions it is necessary to move away from the basic principle of plasma – electrical neutrality – and make it positively charged, that is, consisting only of the nuclei of hydrogen atoms.

Plasma can be described by the MCT equations [11], based on this, we will find the energy that will be released in the deuterium-deuterium fusion reaction, the energy needed to charge the camera and the camera parameters. Let's write down the conditions in Table 1.

Table 1

Physical quantity Value

Temperature (T) 〖10〗^7 K

Pressure (P) 〖10〗^18 Pa

The radius of the plasma sphere (r) is 0.001m

The area of the plasma sphere (S) is 0.00001256 m^2

Plasma sphere volume (V) 0.000000004m^3

Boltzmann constant (k) 1,38*〖10〗^(-23) J/K

Deuterium mass (m) 3,2*〖10〗^(-27)

The value of the electron and proton charge (e) 1,6*〖10〗^(-19)Kl

From the pressure formula (P=nkT) we express the concentration:

n=P/kT

The concentration is ( n=N/V, where N and V are the number of deuterium atoms and the volume occupied by them, respectively), then the number of particles is according to the formula:

N=PV/kT,

which is 2.89*〖10〗^25 particles.

You can calculate the mass of fuel by multiplying the mass of deuterium m by its amount, which will result in 0.093 kg.

To find the released energy, you need to multiply the number of deuterium pairs by the energy released during one fusion [10]:

E=(N*3.268MeV)/2,

which results in 4.7*〖10〗^25MeV or 2.95*〖10〗^12 J.

The charge of this ball is equal to the product of the amount of deuterium by the charge of the proton e, which is equal to 4,624*〖10〗^6Kl.

Since there may be negative particles in the plasma, in order not to disrupt the reaction state, negative particles can be attracted to the chamber wall. To do this, its charge must be greater than the plasma charge. Let the charge of the camera be equal to 4,624*〖10〗^6Kl.

Based on the fact that the plasma and the chamber interact with Coulomb forces, and the force is equal to the product of pressure by volume, then we connect the expressions for the force and find the radius of the chamber:

PS=(kq_1 q_2)/r^2 ,

where: k is Coulomb's constant; q_1 is the plasma charge; q_2 is the chamber charge; r is the distance from the chamber surface to the plasma surface. Then the radius of the camera is equal to the sum of the distance r and the radius of the plasma, which is equal to 123.4 kilometers. The value is large, but by increasing the pressure value (after all, the pressure in the conditions of the problem is only the minimum value), you can get the necessary conditions for smaller sizes. So taking the radius of the chamber for 1 meter, then relying on the previous formula, the pressure will be equal to 1.5*〖10〗^28Pa, and the temperature, respectively, 3.8*〖10〗^16 K.

The chamber is a capacitor consisting of two spheres filled with water (maybe another medium with a large dielectric constant) to remove heat. We present a diagram of the plasma retention unit in Fig.3.

Fig. 3. Diagram of the plasma retention unit

The gap between the spheres d should be small, so the capacity is calculated by the formula:

C=(4πε_0 e_ r^2)/d.

Find the energy of the capacitor by the formula:

W = q^2/2C.

The energy is 7 MJ. Such energy can be replenished by plasma, whose energy is 2.94 *〖10〗^12 more.

Thus, it is possible to obtain 2.94*〖10〗^12 J from 0.093 kg of deuterium minus the capacitor energy. Such a plasma installation can provide energy both on earth (a sphere of 1 meter in size) and in outer space. Since the size of 123 km is large enough on Earth, but small for cosmic scales, it is possible to create large installations in the orbit of celestial objects to generate energy. Also, the prospect of using electrostatic plasma confinement is seen in the possibility of a detailed study of the physical properties of stars and, possibly, their evolution.

In the space station-ship under consideration, this thermonuclear reactor will provide the station and its inhabitants with energy for many years, moving quickly in space. This reactor is safe because it protects people from neutrons generated during the reaction by using a layer of water between the capacitor plates. Also, it will be possible to protect the crew from external charged particles with its electric field and magnetic (when moving), which coincides with a similar planetary system.

Area of residence

A comfortable existence of people is unthinkable without gravity, therefore, the creation of such a structure on which an attraction equal to the earth's is imitated is necessary. There are several ways to create gravity.

The first method is based on large masses, namely, to make a spacecraft so large that artificial gravity arises on it. It will be possible to feel comfortable on the ship, since orientation in space will not be lost. Unfortunately, this method is unrealistic with the modern development of technology. It takes too many resources to build such an object.

The second way is that if you give the ship a flat shape and make it move perpendicular to the plane with the necessary acceleration, then you can get artificial gravity. However, it is worth considering the fuel issue. In order for the station to constantly accelerate, it is necessary to have an uninterruptible power supply. The second problem lies in the very idea of constant acceleration. According to physical laws, it is impossible to accelerate indefinitely. In addition, such transport is not suitable for the creation of orbital stations.

The method behaves differently when using acceleration during rotational motion. If you make the structure rotate, observing the necessary parameters, then you can achieve the creation of gravity. This method is suitable for solving the problem in the best way, so let's consider it.

The second way is that if you give the ship a flat shape and make it move perpendicular to the plane with the necessary acceleration, then you can get artificial gravity. However, it is worth considering the fuel issue. In order for the station to constantly accelerate, it is necessary to have an uninterruptible power supply. The second problem lies in the very idea of constant acceleration. According to physical laws, it is impossible to accelerate indefinitely. In addition, such transport is not suitable for the creation of orbital stations.

The method behaves differently when using acceleration during rotational motion. If you make the structure rotate, observing the necessary parameters, then you can achieve the creation of gravity. This method is suitable for solving the problem in the best way, so let's consider it.

To create Earth gravity on a space station-ship, certain conditions must be met. It is necessary that the gravity in the area of residence is the same, that is, the rotational speeds at each point are equal. This can be achieved provided that the shape of the living area is not spherical (otherwise the rotation speeds of different points will be different), but represent a ring.

Since the system rotates, and a radius of at least 10 meters is required for a comfortable stay [2], the dimensions of the reactor – 123.4 km – satisfy the condition, because the ring is outside it.

Artificial Earth satellites rotate at a frequency of 80-100 revolutions per minute for stabilization [5], then in order to preserve the strength of the structure when using the same materials, the rotation frequency of the space station-ship should be no more than the given values.

To isolate the area of residence from the thermonuclear reactor for safety and ease of assembly (consider below), we will take it to a distance of 100 meters, then the radius of the ring will be 123.5 km. Calculate the number of revolutions for these conditions by the formula of centripetal acceleration:

g= ω^2 R,

where g is the acceleration of gravity; ω is the angular velocity; R is the radius of the ring. Then the ring area of residence for the creation of gravity will make 32 revolutions per hour, which is consistent with the conditions put forward.

It is worth noting that the energy from the reactor to the area of residence will be transmitted using radially arranged rigid pipes. Let's illustrate the space station-ship ni fig.4.

Fig.4. Diagram of an autonomous space station-ship

Construction and launching into outer space

Of course, this space station-ship is large, so it is very difficult to build it on Earth and put it into orbit. To solve this problem, it is necessary to assemble parts on the Ground, then put them into orbit using cargo rockets and assemble them like a designer. The assembly process in outer space can be automated, or it can be performed by people using Salyut or Skylab type stations for temporary stay in orbit [4]. It is worth noting that, using the principle of assembling a designer when building a space station-ship, it is convenient to make the area of residence remote from a thermonuclear reactor. Then, he will be able to earn before the first one is built, to provide energy for further construction.

Conclusion

Thus, in this paper, a space station-ship was considered, developed on the principle of analogy with nature, namely with a planetary system, as an ideal structure for the existence of people. A thermonuclear reactor was also developed, the principle of operation of which is based on an analogy with stars (the conditions for the occurrence of thermonuclear fusion in them are considered). In the paper, conditions are put forward for creating a living area with the calculation of its parameters and the issues of building and launching a space station-ship are considered.

This space station-ship will allow not only to create autonomous orbital settlements, but also to be a source of energy, as well as to move people in space. This combination is promising for the development of human civilization.

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